This article covers the Tkinter Toplevel widget
Tkinter works with a hierarchical system, where there is one root window from where all other widgets and windows expand from. Calling the
Tk() function initializes the whole Tkinter application.
Often while creating a GUI, you wish to have more than just one window. Instead of calling the Tk() function again (which is the incorrect way) you should use the Tkinter Toplevel widget instead.
Tk() function creates a whole Tkinter instance, while calling the
Toplevel() function only creates a window under the root Tkinter instance.
Tk() function instance will destroy the whole GUI, whereas destroying the
Toplevel() function only destroys that window and it’s child widgets, but not the whole program.
window = Toplevel(options.....)
List of all relevant options available for the Toplevel widget.
|1||bg||Background color for the area around the widget.|
|2||bd||Size of the border around the widget. Default value is 2 pixels.|
|3||cursor||When the mouse is hovering over this widget, it can be changed to a special cursor type like an arrow or dot.|
|4||font||The type of font to be used for this widget.|
|5||fg||The color for the text.|
|6||height||The height of the widget in terms of text lines.|
|7||relief||It specifies the type of the border. Default is Flat, other options include |
|8||width||Width of the Checkbutton.|
This is a simple Toplevel function example simply to demonstrate how it works.
from tkinter import * root = Tk() window = Toplevel() root.mainloop()
This isn’t a very practical approach though, so we’ll discuss a more real life scenario in the next example.
Toplevel Example 2
In this example we’ll show you another way calling a new window. In most software, you start off with one window and can spawn multiple windows such as a “Settings Window”. This is in contrast to the previous example where we started directly with 2 windows.
The code below creates a button, that when clicked calls a function that creates a new Toplevel window with a widget in it. You might find this approach more suitable for your GUI.
from tkinter import * def NewWindow(): window = Toplevel() window.geometry('150x150') newlabel = Label(window, text = "Settings Window") newlabel.pack() root = Tk() root.geometry('200x200') myframe = Frame(root) myframe.pack() mybutton = Button(myframe, text = "Settings", command = NewWindow) mybutton.pack(pady = 10) root.mainloop()
Only use multiple windows when it makes sense to have more than one. It makes sense to have a separate window dedicated to settings, especially when it’s a large software when dozens of different settings.
Another benefit of using Toplevel is the dozen different methods available to it that provide extra functionality.
Amongst the most useful these methods are
deiconify() which can be used to withdraw and display the window respectively. Useful if you want to make the window disappear without destroying it. And also the resizable,
title methods. Explanations mentioned below in the table.
Most of these methods are self-explanatory enough that you shouldn’t require any explanation beyond what is written here. The rest will be covered in another article soon, or you can always google it if you ever need it.
|1||deiconify()||Used to display the Toplevel window. Only use after using either the withdraw() or iconify() methods.|
|2||frame()||Returns a system-specific window identifier.|
|3||group(window)||Two windows are involved here. The window passed into the group() gets added to the group in which the window on which the method was used, is.|
|4||iconify()||Turns the window into an icon. Sort of like minimizing.|
|5||protocol(name, function)||Links a function to a name, which can be used to call it.|
|6||state()||Used to get the current state of the window. Possible values are normal, iconic, withdrawn, and icon.|
|7||resizable(width, height)||Controls whether, or how much the toplevel window can be resized.|
|8||withdraw()||Withdraws the function (causing it to disappear) without actually destroying it, or any of the widgets in it.|
|9||title(string)||Defines a title for the toplevel window.|
This marks the end of the Python Tkinter Toplevel article. Any suggestions or contributions for CodersLegacy are more than welcome. Relevant questions regarding the article material can be asked in the comments section below.
To learn about other awesome widgets in Tkinter, follow this link!